Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
Auger electron spectroscopy (or Auger) involves irradiating a sample with a beam of electrons. This causes electrons to be emitted with a range of energies, some of which are characteristic of the element from which they came. Emitted electrons are collected and energy analysed. Auger provides information as to the elements present in the outermost atomic layers of a sample surface and is sensitive to all elements (except H and He) down to around 0.1 atomic percent. When combined with argon-ion sputtering, information as a function of depth can be obtained.